Static Block in Java

Static block in Java is used to initialize the static variables (also known as class variables). To initialize instance variables there are constructors, where error handling or other logic can be used. To provide the same capability for class variables, there are static initialization blocks in Java.

Syntax of Java static block

A static initialization block is a normal block of code enclosed in braces { }, and preceded by the static keyword.

static {
    // code for initialization goes here

Points about static block in Java

  1. Java static block is executed only once, when the class is first loaded.
  2. Static block is executed before the execution of the main method starts.
  3. Non-static variables can’t be accessed with in a Java static block.
  4. A class can have any number of static initialization blocks, and they can appear anywhere in the class body.
  5. The runtime system guarantees that static initialization blocks are executed in the sequence that they appear in the source code.

Java static block example

public class StaticBlock {
  static final int a;
  static int b;
  int c;
  //static blocks
  static {
    System.out.println("in static block-1");
    a = 5;
  static {
    System.out.println("in static block-2");
    b = a * 5;
    // error non-static variable
    //c = 7;
    System.out.println("Calling constructor of the class");
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    System.out.println("Executing main method ");
    StaticBlock sb = new StaticBlock();
    System.out.println("Value of a " + a);
    System.out.println("Value of b " + b);


in static block-1
in static block-2
Executing main method 
Calling constructor of the class
Value of a 5
Value of b 25

Few points to note here are-

1- In the code there are 2 static blocks, both are executed in sequence.
2- From the output you can see that the static blocks are executed before the main method and thus the constructor.
3- Trying to access non-static variable in a static block results in compile-time error.

Exception handling in Java static block

1- You can’t use throws clause with static block so statement like below will result in compile time error.

static throws Exception{


2- Trying to throw a checked exception from a static block is also not possible. You can have a try-catch block in a static block where checked exception may be thrown from the try block but you will have to resolve it with in catch block. You can’t propagate it further using a throw keyword.

static {
    System.out.println("in static block-1");
    new BufferedReader(new"D:\\test.txt"));
    //a = 5;
  }catch(IOException exp){
    try {
      throw exp; //error
    } catch (IOException e) {
      throw e;

As you can see every time you try to throw a checked exception you will get an error which prompts you to wrap it in a try-catch block.
3- You can throw an unchecked exception from a static block. In case of checked exception too you can wrap it with in an unchecked exception and throw it as shown in code below-

static {
    System.out.println("in static block-1");
    new BufferedReader(new"F:\\test.txt"));
    //a = 5;
  }catch(IOException exp){
    throw new RuntimeException(exp);

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